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Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change

Comprehensive Hazard and Risk Management (CHARM)

CHARM is defined as a comprehensive hazard and risk management tool for use within an integrated national development planning process. It aims to facilitate greater collaboration between risk reduction projects at all levels (though mostly at the national level with participation from stakeholders for decision-making) and across sectors to enhance sustainable development. CHARM takes all hazards into account across the whole country.

Appropriate Use This tool can be used for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into ongoing national development planning processes. It aims to address all hazards including natural and human-induced, and also to help identify measures that can be implemented in all phases of disaster management (prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery). The emphasis is on bringing a wide range of stakeholders together for risk reduction to enhance effectiveness of the combined efforts.
Scope National Level
Key Output

The immediate output of the CHARM process is to develop a matrix summarizing national risks and risk reduction measures (or “treatment options”) that considers the activities of all agencies. Planners then target the gaps identified in the matrix.

Step 1 – Context established;
Step 2 – Risks identified;
Step 3 – Risks analyzed;
Step 4 – Risks evaluated;
Step 5 – Risks treated and results evaluated.

Key Input Step 1 – Identification of national development priorities, organizational issues, and initial risk evaluation criteria;
Step 2 – Identification of hazard, vulnerable sectors, and impacts;
Step 3 – Assessment of risks with stakeholders based on agreed indicators, such as frequency of hazards, potential impacts, etc.;
Step 4 – Determination of acceptable levels of risks and priorities for action;
Step 5 – Selection of risk reduction measures; assignment of roles and responsibilities for all partners; evaluation against agreed criteria.
Ease of Use Readily usable by those with experience in policy analysis, developing work plans, and inter-agency planning.
Training Required Knowledge of tools for each step is needed (e.g. to rank development challenges, develop budgets).
Training Available Training is available through broad stakeholder consultation workshops involving both national and regional stakeholders. SOPAC has also developed a manual.
Computer Requirements Word processing and spreadsheets.
Documentation SOPAC. 2001. Comprehensive Hazard Risk Management Regional Guidelines for Pacific Island Countries. Suva: South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission. Guideline and manual available in print or on CD.

CHARM has been used for planning in Palau, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Fiji, and Tonga, and it has also been aligned to the Joint Australia-New Zealand Risk Management Standard.

Contacts for Framework, Documentation, Technical Assistance

Atu Kaloumaira, Community Risk Programme Advisor; SOPAC Secretariat, Private Mail Bag, GPO, Suva, Fiji Islands; Tel: +679.338.1377;
Fax: +679. 3370040, e-mail:

Noud Leenders, Community Risk Management Advisor; SOPAC Secretariat, Private Mail Bag, GPO, Suva, Fiji Islands; Tel: +679.338.1377;
Fax: +679. 3370040, e-mail:

Cost Free

See Documentation