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Chronological evolution of the LDC work programme and
introduction to the concept of NAPA

 

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+ LDCs under the Convention

Article 4.9 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes the special situation of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and states:

"The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the Least Developed Countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology".

Five major decisions were adopted at COP 7 as follows:

  • Decision 2/CP.7: Capacity building in developing countries (non-Annex I Parties);
  • Decision 5/CP.7: Implementation of Article 4, paragraph 8 and 9, of the Convention (decision 3/CP.3 and Article 2, paragraph 3, and Article 3, paragraph 14, of the Kyoto Protocol);
  • Decision 27/CP.7: Guidance to an entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism of the Convention, for the operation of the least developed countries fund;
  • Decision 28/CP.7: Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action;
  • Decision 29/CP.7: Establishment of a least developed countries expert group.
 
+ The LDC work programme and scope for capacity-building
 

Elements of the LDC work programme

Decision 5/CP.7 of the 7th Conference of the Parties (COP) acknowledged the specific situations of LDCs, in that they do not have the means to deal with problems associated with adaptation to climate change, and established an LDC work programme, which includes:

  • Strengthening existing and, where needed, establishing, national climate change secretariats and/or focal points to enable the effective implementation of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, in the LDC Parties;
  • Providing training, on an ongoing basis, in negotiating skills and language, where needed, to develop the capacity of negotiators from the LDCs to participate effectively in the climate change process;
  • Supporting the preparation of NAPAs;
  • Promotion of public awareness programmes to ensure the dissemination of information on climate change issues;
  • Development and transfer of technologies, particularly adaptation technology (in accordance with decision 4/CP.7);
  • Strengthening of the capacity of meteorological and hydrological services to collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate weather and climate information to support implementation of NAPAs;

Scope for capacity-building

In the capacity-building framework for developing countries, in the annex to the decision 2/CP.7, paragraph 17, the specific scope for capacity building in the LDCs is presented and includes:

The Least Developed Countries, and Small Islands Developing States amongst them, are among the most vulnerable to extreme weather events and the adverse effects of climate change. They also have the least capacity to cope with and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. The following is the initial assessment of needs and priority areas for capacity building in these countries:

(a) Strengthening existing and, where needed, establishing national climate change secretariat or focal points to enable the effective implementation of the Convention and effective participation in the Kyoto Protocol process, including preparation of national communications;

(b) Developing an integrated implementation programme which takes into account the role of research and training in capacity building;

(c) Developing and enhancing technical capacities and skills to carry out and effectively integrate vulnerability and adaptation assessment into sustainable development programmes and develop national adaptation programmes of action;

(d) Strengthening existing and, where needed, establishing national research and training institutions in order to ensure the sustainability of the capacity-building programmes;

(e) Strengthening the capacity of meteorological and hydrological services to collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate weather and climate information to support implementation of national adaptation programmes of action;

(f) Enhancing public awareness (level of understanding and human capacity development).

 
+ The national adaptation programme of action (NAPA)
 

Rationale for NAPAs

In order to address the urgent adaptation needs of the LDCs, a new approach was needed that would focus on enhancing adaptive capacity to climate variability, which itself would help address the adverse effects of climate change. The NAPA takes into account existing coping strategies at the grassroots level, and builds upon that to identify priority activities, rather than focusing on scenario-based modeling to assess future vulnerability and long-term policy at state level. In the NAPA process, prominence is given to community-level input as an important source of information, recognizing that grassroots communities are the main stakeholders.

NAPAs provide a process for the LDCs to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change. The rationale for NAPAs rests on the limited ability of  the LDCs to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.

Focus of NAPAs

The NAPAs focus on urgent and immediate needs - those for which further delay could increase vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. NAPAs are designed to use existing information; and no new research is needed. They must be action-oriented and country-driven and be flexible and based on national circumstances. Finally, in order to effectively address urgent and immediate adaptation needs, NAPA documents should be presented in a simple format, easily understood both by policy-level decision-makers and by the public.

The main content of the NAPA document a list of ranked priority adaptation activities and projects, as well as short profiles of each activity or project, designed to facilitate the development of proposals for implementation of the NAPA. 

The NAPA preparation process

The steps for the preparation of the NAPAs include synthesis of available information, participatory assessment of vulnerability to current climate variability and extreme events and of areas where risks would increase due to climate change, identification of key adaptation measures as well as criteria for prioritizing activities, and selection of a prioritized short list of activities.

The development of a NAPA also includes short profiles of projects and/or activities intended to address urgent and immediate adaptation needs of LDC Parties.

Upon completion, the NAPA is submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat, where it is posted on the website, and the LDC Party becomes eligible to apply for funding for implementation of the NAPA under the LDC Fund. A copy of the NAPA is also sent to the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

To facilitate access to priorities identified in the NAPAs, the secretariat has developed a NAPA Priorities Database.

The NAPA implementation process

Once a NAPA has been submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat, the LDC Party can start the process of implementation under the LDC Fund, which is managed by the GEF. To initiate implementation, an LDC Party prepares a concept note and requests an implementing agency of the GEF (currently there are 10 of them), to assist it in submitting a proposal for funding to the GEF under the LDC Fund. The GEF agency then works with the country to develop the concept into a full project that is ready for implementation under the GEF project cycle.

The GEF cycle includes a sequence of steps that includes submission of a project identification form (PIF), followed by a project preparation grant (PPG), then a full-sized project (FSP) proposal. Each of these stages is either approved by the GEF Chief Operating Officer and/or the GEF Council. This interactive process with the country is supported by funds to assist the country fully develop the project and prepare the relevant project documents for submission. The GEF agency works very closely with the country during each successive step, and ultimately supports the country in implementing the project. 

 
Last updated 04 March 2013
 
Background information on LDCs

LDC Country Information

pdf-icon UNFCCC Article 4 (5 kB)

UNFCCC Handbook

 
Key Decisions

pdf-icon Decision 12/CP.18: Further guidance for the operation of the LDCF

pdf-icon Decision 9/CP.17:
The Financial mechanism of the Convention: the LDCF
(113 kB) Support for the implementation of elements of the LDC work programme other than NAPA

pdf-icon Decision 5/CP.16: Further guidance for the operation of the LDCF

pdf-icon Decision 6/CP.16: Extension of the mandate of the LEG

Decision 5/CP.14: Further guidance for the operation of the LDC Fund

Decision 3/CP.11: Further guidance for the operation of the LDC Fund

Decision 8/CP.8: Guidance for the operation of the LDC Fund

Decision 2/CP.7: Capacity-building in developing countries

Decision 5/CP.7: Implementation of Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention

 
Latest SBI Conclusions and documents

pdf-icon SBI 37 Conclusions - Matters relating to LDCs
(134 kB)
pdf-icon SBI 36 Conclusions - Matters relating to LDCs (42 kB)   SBI welcomed the LEG work programme for 2012-2013

Report on the twenty-second meeting of the LEG (FCCC/SBI/2012/27)

Other relevant documents

Technical paper on the identification and implementation of medium-and long-term adaptation activities  in LDCs
(FCCC/TP/2011/7)

Report on the regional training workshops on the implementation of NAPA in 2009-2010
(FCCC/SBI/2010/15)

Synthesis report on the NAPA process, including operation of the LDCF
(FCCC/SBI/2010/17)

Synthesis report on possible elements for a future mandate for the LEG
(FCCC/SBI/2010/12)

Information on the preparation and implementation of NAPA, including on accessing funds from the LDCF. Submissions from Parties and relevant organizations
(FCCC/SBI/2010/Misc.9)

Views on possible elements for a future mandate for the LEG, including its renewal and expansion
(FCCC/SBI/2010/Misc.10)

Useful links

National adaptation plans

LEG work programme for 2012-2013